The ruins of a very important ancient settlement named Pergamum are just one hour driving distance from the famous modern city Izmir, Turkey. Today Pergamum is a very cute, nice and a traditional city named Bergama at the Aegean Region of Turkey.
Pergamum's history starts with a man who called Philatarius, who was friend of General Lysimachus, once established Ephesus Tours. Philatarius founded Pergamum in the 3rd Century B.C. Then his relatives established the Pergamum Kingdom. Pergamum Kingdom occupied a very large area in Turkey from the Marmara Sea up to the Mediterranean Region, including the entire Aegean Coats of Turkey. They occupied Ephesus in 190 B.C. Eumenes and Attalus were the names of the Kings who reigned Pergamum for about 150 years.
The last Pergamum Kingdom, Attalos the third, bequeathed his Kingdom to the Romans in 130 B.C. and this was the end of that Kingdom. The city existed also in Byzantium period.
Pergamum was consisting of two parts; the upper part which was known as the Acropolis and lower part known as the first large hospital called the Asclepion. Asclepios was son of Apollo, the God of health. The ancient hospital that was established was called after Asclepios. Famous doctors like Doctor Galen worked there. Roman Emperor and also many important people were treated in Pergamum.
The Acropolis of Pergamum was surrounded by a fortification wall. The second biggest Library of ancient period was built on the Acropolis. Also an Athene Temple, a Dionysus Temple and later a white marble temple of the Roman Emperor Trajan was erected at Acropolis. A great theater with a capacity of 10.000 was built, having a great view to the valley. One of the most famous ancient structures on the Acropolis of Pergamum was certainly the Zeus Altar. Its foundation is still visible. It is known to be the biggest altar of that time. Carl Human who was the leader of excavation champagne in 1890's brought this altar with German warships to Berlin. Today the Zeus Altar is displayed in the well-known Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
Today a cable car line leads to Acropolis. In the center of today’s Bergama there is also a famous historical building called the Red Court. Pergamum was also known as one of the seven churches founded by St. John the apostle.