Ephesus was established in the 3rd Century B.C. in the Hellenistic time. But today it is appeared more as a Roman ancient city, since for a long time it was the capital city of the Roman Empire in Asia Minor (Turkey).
Ephesus was occupied by the Roman's in the 2nd Century before Christ for the first time. Roman's converted, rebuilt, modified lots of structures in Ephesus. They build several aqueducts, monumental fountains, imperial temples and Roman Baths in Ephesus. One of the important structures they built and add to architecture of Ephesus is the Odeon (Bouleuterion).
The Odeon was a concert (music) hall. It dates to first century BC. It is at the upper part of the Ephesus City, located on the Pion Mountain opposite the large State Agora. It seated 1400 spectators and was covered by a wooden roof. Its orchestra was small and during excavations a marble head of Eros was found. Since there is no water gutter, it is believed that this building was covered. There is a stage and two storied marble stage building at the back. In the niches of the stage building there are statues of donates of the city. On both sides there are special step ways which are leading onto the vaulted gates, used once by the audience to go into the cave to take their sits.
This Odeon was also called the Buleterion since the bule (parliament) of Ephesus hold here meetings. So this structure had two purposes; both as a concert hall and the parliament of the city.
It is believed that the Odeon was destroyed in 8th Century by the earthquakes after Christ. The Odeon had been uncovered and restored by the archeologists. It is in a very good condition and is one of the most impressive restorations of Ephesus.