The first civilizations in Turkey generally take us to 12.500 years before. Civilizations in the Aegean region including Ephesus History are approximately from 7.000 before. It is known that Ancient Ephesus and its surroundings are 6.000 year old.
Ephesus is stated as ‘Apasa’ in the Hittite inscriptions. It is said that Apasa is the name of one of the princesses of Amazon’s among the founders of Ephesus and Ephesus name comes from this name.
There are 5 different settlements in Ephesus. The first and forth settlements are around Selcuk Castle. The second settlement is around Artemis temple and the fifth one is todays Selcuk town. But the third one is known as Ephesus city and visited by the millions of people all around the world every year. This ancient city is located on a valley between the Nightingale and Pion Mountains. It is established by Alexander the Great’s famous Macedon general Lysimachus. Lysimachus gave his wife’s name, Arsinoe, to this city. He also get the 6 miles length walls around the city, which you can still the ruins to defend the city better. This Ephesus city existed in Hellenistic, roman, Byzantium and Seljukian Periods and was settled for about 1.700 years. A Turkish house was found near Ecumenical Council, the Church of the Virgin Mary, and this is the proof that Ephesus was settled until the 14th century.
The third Ephesus, established by Lysimachus had it is most powerful time in the Roman period and became the capital city of Roman Empire in Asia Minor (BC 129). Domitian and Hadrian Temples, Trajan and Polio Fountains, famous Celsus Library, Odeon and Terrace Houses which are restored and can be visible today was built in Roman time. The Great Amphitheatre had been built in Hellenistic time and changed in Roman time.
For sure Ephesus has a very important role in the Early Christianity History. The Virgin Mary, Maria Magdalena and St. John were buried here, St. Joh wrote Bible in Ephesus, Ephesus is one of the Seven Churches and the very important Ephesus Council was arranged in this city in AD 431. Also The Basilica of St. John that was built on the tomb of St. John in AD 567 is very important. Of course we shouldn’t forget the presence of St. Paul in Ephesus. St. Paul worked as a Tent Maker for 3 years in the Commercial Agora near Celsus Library at the same time he spread Christianity in Synagogues, Caves and Shelters. His speeches in the Great Theater, the protests in the theater and his letters to Ephesians are also known.
Ephesus History is very important in any angle.